In Rigveda, there are verses or ‘Suktas’ which is about different ‘Devata’ as well as there are ‘Suktas’ which is vivid in the description of the theory of creation and philosophy. How the whole cosmos has been created and who has created the Earth, Sky or Fire? How the position of the Sun changes in the sky? Why doesn’t the Sun come down on earth? In Vedas, it is found that the Vedic seers have asked as well as tried to answer these queries through different ‘Mantras’ in different ‘Suktas’. From these thoughts, Vedic cosmology is conceptualized.
The ancient Indian scriptures have different dialogues on the origin of the cosmos, especially in Vedas, Upanishads, and Puranas. In Vedas, the origin of the cosmos has been realized through different imaginary theorems. Vedas hymns 'Prajapati' as the creator of everything.
To understand the mystery of the cosmos, 'Nasadiya Sukta' of Rigveda 10/129, in its beginning, has described the pre-state of creation. The 'sukta' says that in the beginning there was only darkness. The cosmos at that time witnessed neither 'Sat' nor 'Asat'. As it says, there was no space or sky. It also asks who or what was there to surround it and to protect it and whether there was the endless depth of water surrounding everything? There was neither death nor immortality; there was no rhythm of diurnal cycles. The self-expressive form existed on its willpower. This 'Sukta' doesn't say more than this. The Vedic Seers have made efforts to understand what existed at the beginning of everything. They have said that everything was under complete darkness. The whole universe was like an inseparable body of water. Then by the power of 'Tapasya', one 'Tatwa' was created. It is, after the creation of 'Tatwa', 'Kaam' which is the first distorted state of mind was created.
The 'Rishis' (Vedic seers) searched the fundamental seed of the cosmos within the formless 'Tatwa'. The manifestation of creation was instantaneous just like the flash of lightning and so it was difficult to say which was formed first among 'Dulok' or Heaven, 'Antariksha Lok' or space and 'Prithvi the Lok' or the earth. The seers were also uncertain about the fact. Why and how the cosmos came into existence cannot be easily interpreted. That is why the Vedas explained the creation with the concept of 'Parameshwar' or the Supreme Being. It says that the cosmos was Parameshwar's creation. This vast expanse can only be created and sustained by 'Parameshwar'. The contemplation of the cosmos is only in 'Parameshwar'.
There is another 'Sukta' in Rigveda which is 'Srishti Sukta' (Rigveda 10/190). This brief 'sukta' is compiled of three different verses and it says that the expression of the cosmos emerged from bright 'Tapas' or spirit. From that ‘Tapas’, the truth emerged and the cycles of day and night found its rhythm and then the oceans of water was created. After the oceans, life was created. A brief description of 'Dulok', 'Prithvi Lok', and 'Antarikshalok' that is light can be found in another 'Sukta'. The 'Parambrahman' has been conceived as the main reason behind the creation. 'Parambrahman' has been addressed as 'Viraat Purusha' in ‘Viswakarman Sukta’(Rigveda 10/81,82).
In ‘Viswakarman Sukta’, the ‘Paramtattwa’ at the beginning of the journey of the universe has been called as ‘Viswakarman’ and in ‘PurushaSukta’(Rigveda 10/90) the same has been addressed as ‘Viraat Purusha’. The first three ‘mantras’ describes the vastness of the ‘Paramtattwa’. To describe its vast form, these say that if the ‘Paramtattwa’ holds the cosmos all around it the space of ten fingers is still left. One fourth of the ‘Purusha’ is the whole ‘Brahmanda’ or cosmos and the rest three fourth is inexhaustible and immortal from which ‘Parambrahman’ creates the mortal universe. Apart from this, in ‘PurushaSukta’, the chronological sequence of spiritual creation has been described by philosophical theory. First,‘Viraat Purusha’ was created, from that ‘Jivatma’ was created, and from the Jivatma ‘Devas’, human and animals etc. were created. They live on earth after getting separated from ‘Paramatma’. The six to fourteen mantras of this ‘Sukta’ describes the creation of different ‘Tattwas’ by ‘Purusha’.
In ‘Hiranyagarva Sukta’(Rigveda10/121) ‘Paramabrahman’ is called as ‘Hiranyagarva’. The seer has seen the visible form of ‘Hiranyagarva’ who has expressed through smaller elements. Like ‘Purusha Sukta’, the chronological manifestation of the cosmos has been described. At first, ‘Hiranyagarva’ was created who hold the sky and earth and all. He is the donor of life and energy, death and immortality are His shadow. By His own grace, He is the only God of whole universe. For His strength, the heaven is strong, the earth is constant by His poise, and the Sun illuminated the space for His light. The seer asks in his mind by comprehending the greatness of the creator that whom shall he worship other than the ‘paramabrahman’. The ‘sukta’ ends with the praise of the ‘Paramabrahman’ and the fulfillment of desire from Him.
In ‘Bak Sukta’(Rigveda 10/125), it has been said that from ‘Sabdabrahman’ the cosmos was created. It is eternal and omnipresent. ‘Bak’ has been said as magnificent and powerful. ‘Paramabrahman Paramatma’ is the source of all form and energy. After the creation of elements of nature, ‘Bak’ manifests itself within all elements. The ‘Sukta’ ends with the praise of the ‘Bak’. ‘Om’ or ‘Nad’- is the symbolic form of ‘Sabda Brahma’or ‘Param Brahma’. ‘Om’ is the sound generated from the movement of cosmic objects. In Yajurveda (40/17), it has been said “OM KHAM BRAHM”. In certain scriptures ‘Om’ has been called as a ‘Shabd Brahm’. ‘Om’ is also called ‘Pranab’, the first sound generated in the universe. At the time of the beginning of universe there was a Mahanad or a big explosion which is called the Big bang according to the modern science and ‘Om’ is the consequence of that Mahanad.
(Article by Chandrani Mahato, Research Scholar Prof. J. Krishnan, Research Supervisor )