10 Theories of creation of Universe as per Hindu Cosmology

Most of us have read and accepted the verdict of science - that we are the chance result of billions of years of evolution from single-celled creatures, to sea-born creatures, to reptiles, birds, mammals, to apes and finally to man. But the Vedas and Puranas have different stories to tell. In this :


Vedas say that before the creation of the universe Lord Vishnu is sleeping in the ocean of all causes. His bed is a giant serpent with thousands of cobra like hoods. While Vishnu is asleep, a lotus sprouts of his navel (note that navel is symbolised as the root of creation). Inside this lotus, Brahma resides. Brahma represents the universe which we all live in, and it is this Brahma who creates life forms.


Vishnu is the personification of the eternal multiverse that exists forever without any beginning or end. Brahma is the personification of our temporary physical universe that was created in the big bang. Brahma is said to have been created from the navel (which is a single point) of Vishnu, described as a lotus blooming out of the navel, much like our big bang universe.


Now this universe represented by Brahma is not a permanent universe, it is temporary, Brahma lives for 100 years, says the Vedas, and then dies and then a new universe (Brahma) is born. So as per Vedas, our universe lives for 100 years. Talking of time measurements - Brahma lives for hundred years say Vedas and we are in the first day of the 51st year of the Brahma.


For now, Brahma represents our universe which has birth and death, a big bang and a big cruch, from a navel singularity. Vishnu represents the eternity that lies beyond our universe which has no birth or death and that which is eternal! Many such universes like ours exist in Vishnu. Vedas say that thousands of Brahmas have passed away! In other words, this is not the first time universe has been created.

hindu cosmology


In the Rig Veda (the first scripture of Hinduism, containing spiritual and scientific knowledge) it says that the universe was created out of the parts of the body of a single cosmic man Purusha when his body was sacrificed. There the four classes (varnas) of Indian society come from his body: the priest (Brahmin) from his mouth, the warrior (Kshatritya) from his arms, the peasant (Vaishya) from his thighs, and the servant (Shudra) from his legs.


Some scientists have suggested that, following the Big Bang, the process of the expansion of the universe will eventually be reversed and at some distant point in the future will start to contract, eventually imploding into a `Big Crunch’. This could lead to another ‘Big Bang’, with a new universe being formed. This somehow relates to the present Brahma years coming to an end.


A universe endures for about 4,320,000,000 years (one day of Brahma, the creator or Kalpa) and is then destroyed by fire or water elements. At this point, Brahma rests for one night, just as long as the day. This process, named Pralaya, repeats for 100 Brahma years (311 Trillion, 40 Billion Human Years) that represents Brahma's lifespan. Brahma is regarded as a manifestation of Brahman as the creator.


The universe is often said to be born from the sacred syllable Om, or from an inert void in which "there was neither being nor non-being ...death nor non- death", a single principle from which emerged the diversity of life. From this void desire was born, and from desire came humans, gods and demons.


In earlier Vedic thinking, the universe was created by Hiranyagarbha (here interpreted as 'the golden embryo') or by Prajapati who was born from the Hiranyagarbha (here interpreted as 'the golden womb'). Prajapati was later identified with the puranic Brahma. Other gods are credited with acts of creation, primarily the act of propping apart the sky and the Earth - gods who are said to have done this include Indra, Varuna and Vishnu.


Each Garbhodakasayivishnu exhales and inhales and with each breath a Brahma is born who lives for 100 Brahma years and dies with the breath of Garbhodakasayi vishnu. Each Brahma creates a universe which comes to an end with partial annihilation after several Brahma years. And this cycle begins again.

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  1. Rathiraj 12 September, 2019 at 07:09 Reply

    Hinduism never claims with certainty the Creation Theory rather leaves many unsolved mysteries to be sought after continuously. Unlike the definitive theories of Abrahamic religions, there are no firm evidences of Creation and Evolution in the Hindu scriptures. There are philosophical discourses, each trying to unravel the “truth”. At the same time Rig Veda says that ‘who knows how the universe was created’. This means Hinduism is still pursuing the enigma with an open mind and relies heavily on scientific explanations. This openness of Hindu philosophy has made all others still wonder, how the theories of Brahma’s day-night and life was calculated and WHO ACTUALLY DID THAT! We largely depend upon ancient Hindu scriptures that are still available to us, but are we sure there were no other scriptures or explanations?
    The above Hindu Cosmology and Philosophy better credibility since it does not ‘claim’ anything but leaves to discussions and research.

    • Narayan 24 January, 2021 at 10:25 Reply

      Hinduism allows all schools of thought . It has supported the flat Earth theory as well as the geoid one . You can hold on to the one which pleases you the most . And I am not saying that all are just mere theories , they hold good to the frame of reference of the observer .

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