As in the sacred architecture of other cultures, the very structure of the Hindu temples is designed to reflect cosmological knowledge. Specifically, 108 is a very sacred number in the Indian tradition. The number of beads in a japamala or the rosary bead string used for meditation is 108. the number of dance poses described in Natya Shastra an authoritative text on Dance is 108. The total number of syllables in Rig Veda is 432,000 which is divisible of 108. The distance between sun and earth and moon and earth in terms of their respective diameter is 108 too.
The temples seem to be more of observatory and less of a religious place when their design is examined in detail. The rising sun on equinox and solstice days was aligned on the western entrance of the temple. Many sighting lines for the sunrise and moonrise are identifiable from the temple.
Vishnu temple of Angkor Wat
For illustration, we consider the Vishnu temple of Angkor Wat in Cambodia. In the central tower of this temple, the top most elevation has external axial dimensions of 189.00 cubit east-west and 176.37 cubit north-south. The total sum of these numbers is 365.37 which is very close to the count of days in a solar year and the unequal division of this number through dimensions is the unequal divisions of a year due to the asymmetric motion of sun as mentioned in the Shatapatha Brahmana.
The different measurements in the temple correspond to 365 days of a year, 360 tithis of a year, 27 nakshatras / constellations, etc.
The west-east axis in the temple represents the Yugas. The following are the four measured between two points in the latter three cases and just a measurement in the first case:
The width of the moat = 439.78cubits
First step of western entrance gateway to balustrade wall = 867.03cubits
First step of western entrance gateway to first step of central tower = 1,296.07cubits
First step of bridge to geographic center of temple = 1,734.41cubits
These four numbers correspond to the years in the four yugas in years:
Kali Yuga = 432,000
Dvapara Yuga =864,000
Treta Yuga = 1,296,000
Krita Yga = 1,728,000
There is evidence that the cycles of the yugas emerged out of the desire to harmonize the varying periods of the sun, the moon, and the planets.
A kalpa was taken to constitute 1000 Chaturyugas = 4 yugapadas = 4,320,000 sidereal years.
1 Kalpa = 1000 Chaturyugas = 4,320,000,000 sidereal years
Life of Brahma
A day of Brahma is = A night of Brahma = 1 Kalpa = 4320000000 sidereal years. At the end of one Brahma year which has 360 Brahma days and 360 Brahma nights the whole cosmos is re-created. This is the complete state of chaos and there is a rest period of One Brahma year after the cosmic dissolution before a new cosmic creation begins.
One day of Brahma 4320000000 sidereal years
One night of Brahma 4320000000 sidereal years
8,640,000,000 sidereal years
Days in a Brahma year - 360days
One year of Brahma in sidereal years is 360 × 8640000000 = 3.1104×1012 sidereal years.
Therefore 100 Brahma years is 100 × 3.1104×1012 sidereal years = 3.1104×1014 sidereal years
Therefore Brahma's Life = 3.1104×1014 sidereal years.
This whole cycle of creation and decay is supposed to follow a cosmic law called Rta – the law of universe. Indian cosmology is based on the principles of recursion in terms of the cycles of creation and destruction, pattern repetition at atomic level and higher scales. This further has the implication that the same elements were sought in the outer and the inner cosmos. Furthermore, this explains the importance that was placed on the use of similar ontology for the two.