When NASA proved the Brahma Cosmic Cycle mentioned in Vishnu Puran

The Vishnu Puran is part of an ensemble of 18 post-Vedic Texts collectively denominated as Puranas, or literally “of ancient times” in Sanskrit. The Puranas are a vast literature of stories and allegory pertaining to cosmology, history, geography, and genealogies of kings. Not all Puranas were, however, created equal or written at the same time. The Vishnu Puran is one of the two finest Puranas, see and considered to be among the oldest dating back to the first century B.C. for its written form and many centuries older in its oral form.

In addition to describing the beginnings of the universe in material terms, Vishnu Puran invokes non-material elements and metaphysics subject to uncertain interpretations. Also, the Puranas often describe a result, outcome, or action to a mythological deity/actor and use different names for the same deity.

Vishnu Puran and Bhagvata Puran

The Vishnu Puran and the Bhagavata Purana translated by Prabhupada describe two major cycles of Vedic Cosmology: Vishnu’s cycle that lasts ∼ 311 trillion years and corresponds to the lifespan of the universe; and the 8.64 Gy (Giga Year) long Brahma’s cycle that apparently corresponds to Sun’s life span and comparable to the widely used estimate of 10 Gy for Sun’s life on the main sequence.

Sun Life Cycle of 10 Gy

This rough estimate of 10 Gy, however, suffer from large uncertainties. It is based on Sun’s current luminosity, a first order approximation of the amount of Sun’s mass available for conversion into solar energy, and assuming a steady state system. Models of Sun’s evolution, however, indicate that Sun’s luminosity increases with the age of the Sun; and if a rough correction is made assuming a linear increase in Sun’s luminosity from its inception to the Red-Giant phase, the Sun’s life span on the main sequence decreases to ∼ 8.9 Gy or closer to the 8.64 Gy time span of Brahma’s cycle. And a relatively small change of say 10% in the fraction of Sun’s mass available for fusion would result in a change of almost 1 Gy in Sun’s life span.

Brahma Cycle and Kalpa

The Vishnu Puran and Bhagvat Puran do not explicitly state the age of the universe, but it can be rather accurately inferred from the past history of Brahma’s cycle described in them. The cycle is divided into two equal parts, each 4.32 Gy long called a Kalpa and 2 Kalpas constitute a Brahma’s cycle. During the first half of the cycle life evolves and flourishes on an earth-like planet, and during the second half life slowly perishes ending with the incineration of Earth.

The Vishnu Puran and Bhagvat Puran in fact describe the past history of this cycle, naming each half of the past cycles, and making it clear that one, and only one, Brahmas’ cycle or two halves preceded the current cycle. And since the current cycle began with the formation of our Solar system ∼ 4.57 Gy ago , one can deduce from this history that our universe is at least 4.57 + 8.64 = 13.21 Gy but not more than 13.21 + 4.32 = 17.53 Gy old, in agreement with current estimate of ∼ 13.8 Gy for the age of the universe. The history of Brahma’s cycle indicates that a now-defunct solar system ∼13.2 Gy old should exist in the Milky Way, and implies that planets formed within less than a billion years of the currently accepted age of the universe. In 2003 the Hubble Space Telescope discovered the existence of a planet in the Milky Way galaxy that formed around a sun-like star ∼ 13 Gy ago, whose identity was confirmed by NASA.

Planet older than Solar System

NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope precisely measured the mass of the oldest known planet in our Milky Way galaxy. At an estimated age of 13 billion years, the planet is more than twice as old as Earth’s 4.5 billion years. It’s about as old as a planet can be. It formed around a young, sun-like star barely 1 billion years after our universe’s birth in the Big Bang”. No claim is made here that the primeval solar system discovered by NASA is the solar system predicted by Vishnu Puran. Suffice to note that Vishnu Puran’s indication that a solar system formed in the Milky Way galaxy some 13.2 Gy ago is supported by NASA’s discovery. This prediction also implies that the Milky Way should be at least ∼ 13.2 Gy old. And since heavy elements are generally thought to have been released in supernovae, it follows that the solar system envisioned in Vishnu Puran was presumably preceded by several generations of stars that produced the heavy elements necessary to form the planets.

Therefore, we may conclude that Vishnu Puran predicts that the Milky Way should be significantly older than 13.2 Gy and possibly almost as old as the universe itself. In fact, as discussed later, Vishnu Puran describes the morphology and constituents of a large-scale structure resembling a galaxy that apparently formed soon after the beginning of the universe. In 2018 a 13.5 Gy old low-mass metal-poor star was discovered in the Milky Way, indicating that the Milky Way is at least 13.5 Gy old and ∼ 3 Gy older than previously thought. We are roughly half-way through Brahma’s cycle since the inception of our Solar system, just as the Sun is about half-way through its main sequence.

The Vishnu Puran predicts that at the end of the current cycle or in ∼ 4–5 Gy Earth will be incinerated by the Sun. Succinctly, the sequence begins with a 100-year drought causing havoc because of the failure of crops, followed by extensive evaporation of water, boiling over of rivers and oceans, and a moist runaway green-house effect that leaves the Earth a molten rock before it is consumed by the Sun.

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