According to modern researches into Geology, the Himalayan ranges of mountain originated between the time span of 20 lake to 7 crore years ago. The first phase of Himalayan ranges of mountain began to form 7 crore years ago and completed its last phase 20 lakh years ago only. Ancient Indian literature whose tradition dates back to crores of years ago, also records this epoch making event of geological history. There are many cues registered in the Puraanas regarding the origin of Himalayan ranges of mountains. As per the tradition of Skanda Puraana (Prabhaasa Khand a, 33.89, 35.. 34) in Caakshusa Manvantara Sarasvatee river on its way to west was obstructed by the Himalayan mountain as if it wanted to marry her forcibly. The Pauraanika records further reveal that Sarasvatee pretended to take bath before matrimonial ceremony and entrusted fire to the mountain which was immediately burnt down. This story is the pointer to the volcanic upheaval that took place in Caakshusa Manvantara The aforementioned Pauraanika record points out that Himalayan mountain began to form in Caakshusa Manvantara itself due to volcanic activities in the region irrigated by Sarasvatee but its formation ceased to occur.
Second time the volcanic activities in the present Himalayan region are reported in Skanda Puraana (35.6) to have occurred in Vaivasvata Manvantara. This time the fire is described to have born as Aurvaanala. It was quite devastating compared to the earlier one in the Caakshusa Manvantara. However the fire remained confined to the ocean only due to the intervention of the Sarasvatee. The ocean was known as Maanasa Sarovara or the Tethy's as it is christened today. Sarasvatee is said to have carried the Aurvaanala in a golden pitcher and taking its rise at Pippalaadaasram in the Himalayas it flowed westward reaching Kedaara where it pierced the earth's crust to go underground burning with fire in her hands ( Skanda Puraana, 35. 21-26 ).
It broke forth again at Bhuteeshvara after passing through Srikanthadesha, Kuruksetra, Viraatnagar, Gopaayangiri, Kharjurivana, Maarkandeyaashram and Arbudaaranya ( Skanda Puraana, 3 5.30-41). The above record of Puraana also implies a slow process of formation of Himalayas at the end of Caaksusha Manvantara through volcanoes. But the process gained more momentum with the beginning of Vaivasvata Manvantara. At the end of Caakshusa Manvantara the volcanic Lava was treated as Vadvaanala but in the beginning of Vaivasvata Manvantra the same was treated as Aurvaanala.
Thus as per Puraanic records the formation of first phase Himalayan ranges commenced some where around 12 crore years ago at the end of Caakshusa Manvantara and in the beginning of Vaivasvata Manvatra. The above record also points out that in the process of the formation of Himalayan ranges of mountains the Sarasvatee issuing from the then Tethy's sea vanished. Skanda Puraana (35. 14 ) also predicts the birth of another Vadvaanala at the end of current Manvantara and thus implies a connection between Vadvaanala and a deluge that is traditionally associated with the end of Manvantara cycle. In the technical terminology of the Puraanas, Vadvaanala is the submarine volcanic activities that takes place underneath the sea surface to mark the change of oceanic surface into the orogenic one. Modern view of the origin of Himalayan ranges of moun tains dating back to seven crore years is based on scientific estimates but the ancient Indian view of 12 crore years is based on the actual happening observed by the then Rishis at the site of the then Tethy's sea or Maanasa-sara which presently exists in the extant records of the Puraanas.